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Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. The Book describes the development history of Roman and Arabic numerals - from the step of the hand signal to the characters, the development of complex numbers, and the typographic revision of the Roman numerals up to the Arab-angle-numbers. The author gives children the opportunity in the description of each number, this number right away to write and practice, and thus The Book describes the development history of Roman and Arabic numerals - from the step of the hand signal to the characters, the development of complex numbers, and the typographic revision of the Roman numerals up to the Arab-angle-numbers.
The author gives children the opportunity in the description of each number, this number right away to write and practice, and thus a well-rounded figures textbook, for the young and old in a playful way is instructive. The author uses a very simple, vividly descriptive language, and a simple sentence, which the text is very easy to understand and children's needs. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Numbers Through the Ages.
Front Matter Pages i-viii. Pages Over the last several decades, rural areas have seen larger increases in average age than urban areas Figure 4. This will result in an increase in the ratio of older to younger people, particularly in rural areas. Population ageing is a global phenomenon. In , there were around million people aged 60 years and over worldwide, representing By , this will have increased to 1. By , the developed nations of Europe, Japan and North America will still be amongst the countries with the oldest populations, but China and Latin America notably will also have experienced considerable population ageing Figures 6 and 7.
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Compared with other EU countries, the UK ranks around the middle in terms of the proportion of older people in its population those aged 65 years and over and aged 85 years and over Figures 8 and 10 , but by , it is projected to fall a few places down the rankings as other European countries such as Switzerland, the Netherlands and Poland age more rapidly Figures 9 and Figures 8 and 9: Percentage of population aged 65 years and over, EU countries, and projected Source: World Population Prospects the revision, custom data acquired from website, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division Notes: Medium variant projection is used.
Figures 10 and Percentage of population aged 85 years and over, EU countries, and projected Source: World Population Prospects the revision, custom data acquired from website, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division Notes: Medium variant projection is used. Over the last 50 years, mortality rates have decreased both globally and in the UK Figure Since the s, fertility rates have also declined, now averaging about 2.
In the UK, there has been some stabilisation in fertility rates since the mids with fertility rates now averaging about 1. Download this chart Image. However, this only presents a short-term solution since firstly, immigrants also age and although immigrants from high-fertility countries tend to have more children 1 , over time, second-generation migrant patterns of fertility tend to converge to those of the UK 2. Also, because population ageing and falling fertility rates are occurring globally, migrant profiles may change in the future. Declining mortality rates mean higher life expectancies.
A newborn male baby in the UK today can expect to live for Life expectancy is projected to continue to increase, however, recent trends suggest this may be at a slower rate than in the past 4. Looking 50 years ahead to , life expectancy is projected to rise to Figure Period and cohort life expectancy at birth, to , UK Source: Past and projected data from the period and cohort life tables, based, UK, Office for National Statistics Notes: Data from to are based on historical mortality rates, while data from to use projected mortality rates.
We have published an article explaining the difference between period and cohort life expectancy, see Period and cohort life expectancy explained: December Figure Percentage of people expected to survive to age by year of birth, to , UK Source: Past and projected data from the period and cohort life tables, based, UK, Office for National Statistics Notes: Numbers of survivors are calculated from cohort life tables. Life expectancy varies by area, with males and females born in the most deprived areas of England expected to live 9.
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Figure Life expectancy period at birth by index of multiple deprivation, to , England Source: Health state life expectancies by national deprivation deciles, England and Wales: to , Office for National Statistics Download this image. Dubuc, Sylvie. Immigrants and ethnic fertility convergence in the UK: the role of global fertility transition and intergenerational social integration.
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We have undertaken research into the slowing of mortality improvements in the UK, see Changing trends in mortality: an international comparison: to Ageing is a cross-cutting issue with multiple economic, public service and societal impacts, for example, on pensions, social care, housing and well-being. It can also present opportunities both at a societal and individual level, for example, emergence of new markets, increased involvement in volunteering and community activism, longer working lives, spending more time with family and friends, and possibly providing care for family members.
In considering the implications of an ageing population it is important also to be mindful of the relationships and trade-offs between policy areas, for example, if people work for longer, does that mean that they will have less time to provide informal social care to elderly family members or to care for their grandchildren? How do older people contribute in other non-monetary ways, such as volunteering? If the availability of people to provide informal care declines, how might this impact on the demand for formal social care? The following sections use available evidence to illustrate some of the implications of an older population across the three domains of the economy and finance, services and needs, and society and the individual.
Recent pension age reforms and those to be implemented over the next decade will keep the dependency ratio stable in the short-term, however, looking beyond , the ratio will rise steeply without any further increases in SPA Figure Male employment rates at older ages age 50 years and over declined steeply from the s through to the late s.
This was due in part to the decline of traditional industries through the downturns of the s and recession of the early s, and economic restructuring that disproportionately affected men. Other factors included work exit incentives such as early retirement packages and more generous private pension provision at that time. Male employment rates then remained at relatively low levels before starting to increase from the mid- to lates. Female employment rates at older ages were lower in the s, but were less affected by downturn and restructuring. Employment rates for older women have steadily increased since the mids 1.
The number and proportion of both men and women aged 65 years and over who are working have generally risen across the past two decades, although older male rates of employment have not returned to the levels seen around Employment rates doubled for those aged 65 years and over between and , and increased by almost one-third for those aged 50 to 64 years. The gap between men and women working at ages 50 to 64 years has narrowed since 2.
This is in line with the gradual rise of State Pension age SPA for women from age 60 years from Over the past two years, employment rates for older workers appear to have stabilised.
http://web.difccourts.ae/solana-de-los-barros-medio-siglo-de-cario.php The numbers of older people, aged 65 years and over has remained around 1. It is too early to say whether it is a short- or possibly longer-term feature of the labour market. Regarding the reasons why people work into later life, half of all people working past SPA in reported doing so because they were not ready to stop work.
Further work is needed to explore whether reasons for working past SPA differ according to socio-economic status. State Pension age takes into account the incremental increases in female State Pension age since Once retired, as might be expected, people on average have lower incomes than when they were working Figure 21 ; however, older people have higher income satisfaction 1 and report finding it easier to get by financially than younger people Figure Nevertheless, there is a lower level of income inequality among retired households than non-retired households 2.
Figure Median equivalised disposable household income by household type, UK, financial year ending Source: Household disposable income and inequality in the UK: financial year ending , Office for National Statistics Notes: Estimates have been adjusted to take account of inflation. Figure People who report finding it quite or very difficult to get by financially: by age, to , UK Source: Measuring National Well-being: domains and Measures data from Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, Office for National Statistics Notes: Respondents are asked to rate how they were coping financially from "finding it very difficult" to "living comfortably".
It is difficult to predict how equal incomes of future generations of retirees will be. Auto-enrolment in workplace pensions, brought in during , has boosted numbers with a private pension Figure Many of these are likely to be defined contribution pension schemes where contributions are invested by the pension provider and the performance of the fund can go up and down depending on how the underlying investments perform.
The value of these pensions is therefore less certain than the defined benefit pension schemes that many current retirees were able to join. Figure Proportion of employees with workplace pensions: by type of pension, to , UK Source: Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings pension tables, UK: provisional and revised results, Office for National Statistics Notes: Results for onwards are based on a new questionnaire and may not be comparable to earlier results.
The "group personal and group stakeholder" category includes group personal pensions, group stakeholder pensions and group self-invested personal pensions. Household disposable income and inequality in the UK: financial year ending , Office for National Statistics. At the macro-economic level, pensions are already the largest item of welfare expenditure in 1 , with State Pension provision accounting for 4.
Public spending on health has risen from 4. Figure 24 shows representative profiles for public service spending items and for tax and welfare spending. It shows that people of working age contribute more in tax than they consume in terms of public spending. This switches in later life as people consume more welfare spending, reflecting spending on pensions, and more health and social care spending but pay less tax.
Figure Representative profiles for tax, public services, and welfare spending, to , UK Source: Fiscal sustainability report, January , Office for Budget Responsibility Download this chart Image. As might be expected, wealth increases with age Figure 25 , however, younger generations have less wealth at the same age than previous generations.
A typical adult born during the early s had half as much total net wealth at age 30 years compared with a typical adult born five years earlier when they turned 30 years old 4. Much of this is related to the housing market, with property wealth of those in their early 30s having steadily decreased over the last decade 5. Figure Median household wealth by age and wealth component by age of household reference person, July to June , Great Britain Source: Wealth and Assets Survey, Office for National Statistics Notes: The Household Reference Person HRP is defined as the sole householder in one person households, the person with the highest income in joint person households and in households where householders have the same income, the oldest is taken as the HRP.
Over three-quarters of households where the household reference person is aged 65 years and over are owner-occupied, with the vast majority owned outright 6. While the percentage of these households has increased since to , the average age of first-time buyers has increased 7 and home ownership rates have decreased among all generations below the age of 65 years and most sharply for those aged 25 to 34 and 35 to 44 years Figure Figure Families singles or couples owning their own home, by age group, to , UK Source: Housing data, Resolution Foundation resolutionfoundation. Prior to , housing association renters are included in the private rented sector.
As home ownership has declined, renting has increased for all but the oldest ages 8. This reflects an increase in house prices, which have doubled relative to average earnings in the last 20 years 9.
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Households headed by someone aged 25 to 34 years in England are now more likely to be renting privately than buying with a mortgage Figure Figure Trends in tenure, households with a household reference person aged 25 to 34 years or 35 to 44 years, between to and to inclusive, England Source: English Housing Survey, to , Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government Notes: Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v3. Renting is split into the private and social sectors. Across England, the proportion of households renting privately has increased over the last 10 years, while the social rented sector has decreased Figure 28 The routes into private renting vary by income.
Over the last two decades, increases in private renting amongst high-income and particularly middle-income households were associated with reductions in home ownership as house prices increase relative to earnings. While among low-income groups, increases in private renting were mainly associated with reductions in social renting due to shrinkage of the social rental sector.